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Lesson 10: Waqf and Its Rules

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Waqf

Previous qurrāʾ would use the terms waqf, qaṭʿ and sakt synonymously. With time they, however, came to define the rules more specifically. 

 

 

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–  Qaṭʿ – It literally means to cut. Technically it means to cut or end the recitation without the intention of continuing. Qaṭʿ is only allowed at the end of āyāt.
َ- Waqf– It literally means to stop. Technically it is to stop at the end of a complete word long enough to renew the breath with the intention of continuing recitation.
Sakt – It literally means silence. Technically it means to stop the sound whilst reciting without breaking the breath.

When discussing waqf, there are three things which are considered:
1. The condition of the qāriʾ.
2. The place where the qāriʾ stops.
3. The ḥarakah of the last letter upon which waqf is being made.

1. Considering the condition of the qāriʾ, waqf is of four types:

1.  -the examination stop.

This waqf is made when being tested (e.g. by a teacher etc.). This waqf is allowed (jāʾiz) with the condition that the qāriʾ starts his recitation from that particular word again if it doesn’t distort the meaning, else he will have to start before the word upon which he made 51 waqfs. If it is at the end of a verse, he should continue his recitation from the next verse.

2.  – the adjourning stop.

This waqf is made in a particular place solely to complete the various Qirāʾāt. This waqf is also allowed and the qāriʾ will continue reading from that particular word in which the difference of opinion is found. He does not need to repeat what occurs before this word because the object here is to complete all the various Qirāʾāt.

3. – the forced stop.

This is an involuntary stop made by the qāriʾ which is caused by an unplanned break in his breath due to a cough, sneeze etc. This waqf is allowed even though the meaning will be incomplete, but the qāriʾ has to start his recitation from that particular word (on which he stopped) if the meaning allows it, or else he will have to read from before that word.

4. – the voluntary stop.

This is a stop where the qāriʾ chooses to stop at a particular place to renew his breath.

2. Considering the place where the qāriʾ stops, waqf is also of four types: 

1. – the complete stop.
The qāriʾ makes waqf in such a place where the sentence, as well as the meaning, is complete and there is no connection between it and the following verse. eg-

NOTE: A connection between two verses can be that they are either connected via their meaning or by their grammar (If the verses are connected by their meaning then they do not necessarily have to be connected by their grammar. However, if they are connected by their grammar then they will be connected by their meaning.

2. – the sound/good stop.
The qāriʾ stops in such a place that the sentence has a complete meaning, but is connected via its meaning and grammar to what follows. Eg-

3. -– the sound/good stop.
The qāriʾ stops in such a place that the sentence has a complete meaning, but is connected via its meaning and grammar to what follows. Eg-

NOTE: In waqf tām and waqf kāfī, the qāriʾ will start his recitation after the place of waqf whether it’s in the middle or the end of a verse. If waqf ḥasan is made at the end of a verse, then the qāriʾ will start reciting from the next verse. And if waqf ḥasan is made in the middle of a verse, the qāriʾ will have to start from a suitable place before the place of waqf.

4. – the undesirable stop.
The qāriʾ makes a stop in such a place where the sentence is incomplete in that, it does not give a sound meaning or gives a corrupted meaning and is connected to what follows in meaning and in grammar. Eg-

NOTE: Waqf qabīḥ is not allowed unless forced to due to expiration of breath, a sneeze or a cough etc.

3. Considering the last ḥarakah, waqf is of three types:

1.  Waqf Iskan- to make waqf with iskān. Iskān means to make sākin. So it is to stop making the last letter sākin. Whether the last letter has a fatḥah, ḍammah or kasrah, it will be given a sukūn during waqf.

2. Waqf Roum- to make waqf with roum. This is to make waqf on the last letter of the word reading the ḥarakah partially. It is only allowed on a ḍammah and a kasrah.

3. Waqf Ishmaam- to make waqf with ishmām. This is to make waqf on the last letter of the word by indicating towards the ḥarakah with the lips. It is only allowed on a ḍammah. 

SAKT

Sakt is found in the narration of Ḥafṣ in four places:

 

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