Makhārij is the plural of makhraj. It literally means a place from which something exits. Technically it is an articulation point i.e. that place from which the sounds of the letters are articulated.
5) The extreme back of the tongue, when touching the soft palate above it. The qāf ق is pronounced from here.
6) The back of the tongue, not as far the back as the ق when touching the palate above it (the hard palate). The kāf ك is pronounced from here.
The back part of the tongue refers to the part of the tongue furthest from the mouth.
7) The centre part of the tongue when touching the palate above it.The jīm ج, (shīn) ش the unlengthened yā ي are
pronounced from here.
The yaa ي is either that yāʾ which is mutaḥarrikah or which is sākinah and preceded by a fatḥah. The latter is also called yāʾ līn.