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Lesson 4: Makhārij – Letters of the Teeth

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The Makharij

Makhārij is the plural of makhraj. It literally means a place from which something exits. Technically it is an articulation point i.e. that place from which the sounds of the letters are articulated.

 

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8) The side or edge of the tongue when touching the upper molars left or right. It can also be articulated from both sides at once. The ḍād ض is pronounced from here. The left side is said to be the easiest, followed by the right side. From both sides at the same time is the most difficult.

9) The anterior sides of the tongue (nearest to the mouth) and the tip of the tongue when touching the gums of the teeth extending from one premolar to the other. The lām ل is pronounced from here. 

10) The tip of the tongue when touching the gums of the teeth extends from one canine to the other. The nūn ن is pronounced from here.

11) The tip of the tongue and the top of the tip when touching the gums of the upper central and lateral incisors. The rāʾر is pronounced from here.

NOTE:

Most scholars are of the opinion that the tongue touches the gums of the upper central incisors in the makhraj of the nūn ن and the rāʾر.

12) The tip of the tongue when touching the upper central incisors at the gum line. The ṭāʾط , the dāl د and the tāʾ ث are pronounced from here.

13) The tip of the tongue when touching the edge of the upper central incisors. The dhaa ظ ,the dhāl ذ‎ and the thāʾث‎ are pronounced from here.

14) Between the tip of the tongue and both central incisors. The ṣād  ص, the sīn  س and the zāy ز‎  arepronounced from here.

NOTE:

There is a slight gap between the tongue and the teeth when articulating these letters.

15) The inside of the bottom lip when touching the edge of the upper central incisors. The fāʾ ف is pronounced from here.

16) The meeting of the lips. The wāw و ghayr maddiyyah , the bāʾ ب and the mīm م are pronounced from here.

NOTE:

The wāw ghayr maddiyyah will either be mutaḥarikah or līn, the same as the yāʾ ghayr maddiyyah.

NOTE:

The wāw و is pronounced with the incomplete meeting of the lips. In articulating the bāʾ and the mīm م , the lips meet completely.

17) The Khayshum or nasal cavity. The ghunnah or nasal sound comes from here.

 

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