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Lesson 7: Sifaat Aridah | The Rules Concerning ن and م

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The Sifat

Ṣifāt is the plural of ṣifah. Literally, it means qualities or characteristics. Technically, ṣifāt are those characteristics affixed to the pronunciation of a letter whether intrinsic or circumstantial.


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The Ṣifāt ʿĀriḍah

These characteristics are temporary i.e. sometimes they are found in a letter and sometimes they are not. They are all 11 in number:

1. Iṭḥ-hār

2. Idghām

3. Iqlāb

4. Ikhfāʾ

5. Tafkhīm

6. Tarqīq

7. Madd

8. Qaṣr

9. Ḥarakāt

10. Sukūn

11. Sak


If the ن or the م are mushaddadah, they will be read with ghunnah (a nasal sound). Example- إنّ,


The mīm sākinah has three rules: ْ

1.  Ikhfāʾ.

2. Idghām.

2 ِ Iṭḥ-hār


Ikhfāʾ – It literally means to conceal or hide. If a bāʾ follows the mīm sākinah م then ikhfāʾ will take place; the م will be covered and it will be read with ghunnah. Example- تَرْمِيهِم بِحِجَارَةٍ مِّن سِجِّيلٍ

NOTE: Shafa means lips. Shafawiyyi would refer to a labial pronunciation. It is called because the م is pronounced from the lips.


Idghām – It literally means to assimilate or incorporate. If the mīm sākinah م is followed by another م (idghām will take place i.e. the first mīm م will be assimilated into the second mīm م and it will be read with ghunnah. Example- أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ


Iṭḥ-hār – It literally means to make clear or apparent. If the mīm sākinah م is followed by any letter beside the bāʾ of ikhfāʾ or the mīm (م) (of idghām) then iṭḥ-hār will take place i.e. the mīm م will be read clearly without any extra ghunnah (nasal pull) in it. Example- ٱلْحَمْدُ





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