Madd literally means to lengthen or to extend. Technically, it means the lengthening of sound in the letters of madd or the letters of līn.
The letters of madd are three:
1. Wāw sākinah preceded by a ḍammah و
2. Yāʾ sākinah preceded by a kasrah ي
3. Alif ا
NOTE: The alif is always preceded by a fatḥah
The letters of līn are two:
1. Wāw sākinah preceded by a fatḥah ( وْ ََ )
2. Yāʾ sākinah preceded by a fatḥah ي
Initially madd is divided into two types:
1. Madd Asli- the primary madd
2. Madd Far’i – the secondary madd
– It is that madd where after the letter of madd there is no hamzah or sukoon. Example- نُوحِيهَا
– The duration of madd aṣlī is one alif. One alif is referred to as qaṣr.
It is that madd where after the letter of madd, there is a hamzah or sukūn. The hamzah is a cause for two types of madd:
1. Madd Mutassil- joined madd
2. Madd Munfasil- separated madd
If after the letter of madd, the hamzah is in the same word together with the letter of madd, then it is madd muttaṣil.
NOTE: It is called the joined madd because the letter of madd and the hamzah are joined (together) in one word. If after the letter of madd, the hamzah forms part of the beginning of the next word, then it is madd munfaṣil e.g إِنَّا أَعْطَيْنَاكَ الْكَوْثَرَ.
NOTE: It is called the separated madd because the letter of madd and the hamzah are in separate words. The duration of madd muttaṣil and madd munfaṣil is three or four alifs. This is also referred to as tawassuṭ.
The sukūn is also a cause for two types of madd:
1. Madd Al Aarid As Sukoon – ( the temporary or conditional madd (due to waqf; stopping).
2. Madd Laazim– the permanent or compulsory madd. If after the letter of madd the sukūn is temporary (does not always remain) then it will be madd ʿāriḍ e.g.
NOTE: It is called the temporary madd because the sukūn is temporary. The duration of madd ʿāriḍ is qaṣr, tawassuṭ or ṭūl. Ṭul is pulled to the length of five alifs. There is no madd which is pulled longer than ṭūl.
If after the letter of madd the sukūn is permanent (it remains in all conditions; during waqf and waṣl) then it will be madd lāzim. Example – آلْآنَ
NOTE: It is called the compulsory madd because the sukūn is compulsory or permanent. The duration of madd lāzim is ṭūl (five alifs) only.
** Terms to know:
Madd lāzim will be kilmī if the letter of madd and the sukūn are found in a word. Madd lazim will be ḥarfī َif the letter of madd and the sukūn are found in a letter. By letter the cut letters are specifically referred to e.g.الٓــٓمٰر .
The Huruf Al Muqat’at are only found at the beginning of suwar (chapters). Madd lāzim kilmī and madd lāzim ḥarfī are both mukhaffaf and muthaqqal. They will be muthaqqal if the sukūn is due to idghām and they will be mukhaffaf if the sukūn appears without any idghām.
If after the letter of līn there is a temporary sukūn, it will be madd līn. Its duration is ṭūl, tuwassuṭ or qaṣr. If after the letter of līn the sukūn is permanent, it will be madd līn lāzim. These are the only two examples of this madd in the Qurʾān. The duration of madd līn lāzim is tawassuṭ or ṭūl. Ṭūl is preferred.