What is Tajweed?
- To pronounce each letter from its correct articulation point, giving its right and due, considering the characteristics of the letters.
Why is Tajweed Important?
- To protect the tongue from making mistakes in pronunciation when reading the Qur’an.
- Allah SWT says in the Quran, “and recite the Quran ˹properly˺ in a measured way.” (Surah Muzzamil, Ayah 4)
What is the legal ruling for learning Tajweed?
- This is an individual obligation (Farḍ ‘Ayn), for all Muslims (Men and Women) to apply the rules when reading and a collective obligation (Farḍ Kifāyah) to learn the theory of the rules.
1) Knowledge of the articulation points of the letters (Makhārij)
2) Knowledge of the characteristics of the letters (Ṣifāt)
3) Knowledge of the common mistakes (Akhṭā’)
Makhārij al-Ḥurūf: Articulation points of the letters
- They come from 17 exit points grouped in 5 locations.
- The empty space in the mouth and throat (al-Jawf).
- The Throat (al-Ḥalq)
- The Tongue (al-Lisān)
- The Lips (ash-Shafatān)
- The Nasal Cavity (al-Khayshūm)
a) Al Jawf (Empty Space In The Throat)
- ( ا,و,ي) This one articulation point is for the 3 letters of elongation.
b) Al Halq (The Throat)
- There are 3 articulation points for the following 6 letters: (خ , غ , ح , ع , ه , أ)
Al Halq is further divided into categories:
The back, deepest part of the throat, furthest from the mouth
- (ه , أ) Two letters are articulated here.
- Middle of the throat
- ح , ع Two letters are articulated from here.
- Front of the throat, the closest to the mouth.
- خ , غ Two letters are articulated from here
The Tongue (Al Lisaan)
The tongue (Al Lisaan) is categorized into:
1) Aqṣā al-Lisān
- The back/deepest part of the tongue meets the upper palate.
- Two letters are articulated from here ك ق
2) Wasaṭ al-Ḥalq
- The middle of the tongue meets the upper palate
- ي ش ج Three letters are articulated from here
3) Ḥāffat al-Lisān
- The side/Edge of the tongue meets certain teeth
- ض ل Two articulation points for 2 letters from here
4) Ṭaraf al-Lisān
- Tip of the tongue
- Five articulation points for 11 letters from here
The Lips (ash-Shafatān)
- ف The lower lip meets with the front upper teeth
- و Forming a circle with the lips without them meeting completely.
- م Pressing the lips together and using the nasal passage
- ب Pressing the lips firmly together (stronger than the meem)